Structure and Functions of Uterus

-    hollow muscular organ
-    one of the internal organs of female reproductive system

Situation and Position
-    in the pelvic cavity
-    between urinary bladder and rectum
-    anteverted
-    anteflexed
-    at right angles to the vagina
-    anterior surface rests on the urinary bladder

   flattened anteroposteriorly
   pear shaped
   the different parts are : -
1. fundus - dome shaped part
2. body - main part. Narrowest inferiorly at the internal os where it continues with cervix
3. cervix - protrudes through the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the external os.

   Wall of the uterus   three layers
I.    perimetrium
Consists of peritoneum - anteriorly peritoneal covering forms a fold   vesicouterine pouch
- posteriorly forms rectouterine pouch
- laterally forms broad ligament
II.    Myometrium
thickest layer - smooth muscle fibres - contains a little areolar tissue, blood vessels and nerves
III.    Endometrium - columnar epithelium - mucous secreting glands - thickness varies during the   monthly menstrual cycle - the upper 2/3 of the cervical   mucous membrane;
- the  lower 1/3   squamous epithelium continuous with that of the vagina

Blood supply, lymph drainage and nerve supply
-    uterine arteries - branches of internal iliac arteries
-    venous drainage into internal iliac veins
-    lymph drains into aortic lymph nodes and groups of nodes associated with the iliac blood vessels.
-    Nerve supply   sympathetic  from the lumbar outflow - parasympathetic from sacral outflow
Supports of uterus
1.    broad ligaments
2.    round ligaments
3.    uterosacral ligaments
4.    transverse cervical ligaments (cardinal ligaments)
5.    pubocervical fascia.

Menstrual cycle
Embeds the fertilized zygote - pregnancy - full term - labour - delivery of the baby.

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