The Ureter

Paired muscular ducts  that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Narrow lumina

Abdominal ureter
25-30 cm
Courses down
Proximal end - renal pelvis;
Distal end bladder.
Begins posterior to renal artery and vein
Level :  second lumbar vertebra
courses on the psoas major muscle
Medial to the sacroiliac joint and then curve laterally in the pelvis.
The cecum, appendix, and ascending colon lie over the right ureter
Descending and sigmoid colon lie over the left ureter.

Pelvic ureter
The ureter crosses the bifurcation of the common iliac artery into the internal and external iliac arteries.
Goes to the ischial spines
Penetrate the base of the bladder.
In females, the ureter runs posterior to the ovary
Through the cardinal ligament.

Blood supply and lymphatic drainage
The upper ureter is supplied by the renal artery and by branches from the gonadal artery and aorta.
The middle ureter is derived from the common iliac and gonadal arteries.
the distal ureter is supplied by branches of the common iliac and internal iliac branches, particularly uterine and superior vesical arteries.
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