Mallet finger, also called baseball finger, dropped finger, dolphin finger, "Virgin Finger," "Hannan Finger," "PLF Finger," is an injury of the extensor digitorum tendon which is inserted at the proximal end of the distal phalanx (DIP). Caused by hyperflexion of the extensor digitorum tendon, and usually occurs when a ball (softball, basketball, volleyball), hits an outstretched finger, creating a ruptured or stretched extensor digitorum tendon.
There is an inability to extend the distal third of the finger. Most mallet finger injuries can be treated without surgery.
The anterior interosseous nerve classically innervates three muscles: which are deep muscles of the forearm:-
flexor pollicis longus
the radial half of flexor digitorum profundus (the lateral two out of the four tendons).
and the inferior radioulnar, wrist and carpal joints.
Anterior interosseous syndrome is a medical condition in which damage to the anterior interosseous nerve, a motor branch of the median nerve, causes a characteristic weakness of the pincer movement of the thumb and index finger.
Rickettsialpox is a benign, self-limited disease
Rickettsia akari is an obligate intracellular gram-negative coccobacillus.
Its vector is the colorless mite Liponyssoides sanguineus
found on mice (most commonly the house mouse and other rodents.
These hosts serve as the reservoir for the disease.
About 7-10 days after the painless bite, a papular skin lesion appears at the bite location and becomes vesicular with a surrounding area of erythema.
An eschar forms and slowly heals.
About 3-7 days after the initial skin lesion develops, patients may suddenly develop high-grade fever, chills, headaches, and myalgias with subsequent development of a sparse generalized papulovesicular rash.
Rickettsialpox is mild and self-limited and usually persists for about a week.
Internationally, rickettsialpox has been described in South Africa, Costa Rica, France, Italy, Turkey, Croatia, the Ukraine, Russia, and Korea.
Treated with tetracyclines (doxycycline is the drug of choice). Chloramphenicol is a suitable alternative
Rickettsialpox is generally mild and resolves within 2–3 weeks if untreated. There are no known deaths resulting from the disease.
The mite found on mouse The intracellular coccobacillus
1) Live attenuated vaccine (SA 14-14-2 strain). first dose subcutaneously at age 8 months, booster at 2 years. In some areas, an additional booster at 6–7 years. However, protection for several years may be achieved with a single dose
2) Inactivated, Vero cell-derived, alum-adjuvanted vaccine (SA 14- 14-2 strain). Primary immunization consists of two intramuscular doses, 4 weeks apart. A booster is recommended after 1 year.
3) Inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines (Beijing-1 strain). Primary immunization doses at days 0, 7 and 28, or two doses given preferably 4 weeks apart. One booster 12–14 months after completion of the primary immunization and thereafter every 3 years.
4) Live chimeric vaccine (with yellow fever 17D as backbone). A single dose is recommended; the need for and timing of a possible booster dose have not yet been determined
The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh.
It consists of two parts. The portion which arises from the ischiopubic ramus (a small part of the inferior ramus of the pubis, and the inferior ramus of the ischium) is called the pubofemoral portion, adductor portion, or adductor minimus, and the portion arising from the tuberosity of the ischium is called the ischiocondylar portion, extensor portion, or "hamstring portion". Due to its common embryonic origin, innervation, and action the ischiocondylar portion (or hamstring portion) is often considered part of the hamstring group of muscles. The ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the posterior compartment of the thigh while the pubofemoral portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the medial compartment.
The Babinski sign can indicate upper motor neuron lesion constituting damage to the corticospinal tract. Occasionally, a pathological plantar reflex is the first and only indication of a serious disease process and a clearly abnormal plantar reflex often prompts detailed neurological investigations, including CT scanning of the brain or MRI of the spine, as well as lumbar puncture for the study of cerebrospinal fluid.
The phrase "negative Babinski sign" is sometimes used for the normal flexor plantar response.
Radial tunnel syndrome is a set of symptoms that include fatigue or a dull, aching pain at the top of the forearm with use. Although less common, symptoms can also occur at the back of the hand or wrist.
The symptoms are caused by pressure on the radial nerve, usually at the elbow. The radial nerve is one of the three main nerves in the arm. It runs from the neck to the back of the upper arm. Next, it crosses the outside of the elbow and goes down to the forearm and hand. At the elbow, the radial nerve enters a narrow tunnel formed by muscles, tendon, and bone. This is called the radial tunnel.
Dysfluency : These include fillers i.e. grunts or non-lexical utterances such as "huh", "uh", "erm", "um", "well", "so", and repaired utterances, i.e. instances of speakers correcting their own slips of the tongue or mispronunciations (before anyone else gets a chance to). "Huh" is claimed to be a universal syllable.
Dyspraxia : It’s a brain-based condition that makes it hard to plan and coordinate physical movement. Children with dyspraxia tend to struggle with balance and posture. They may appear clumsy or “out of sync” with their environment
Aphasia : inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. This damage is typically caused by a cerebral vascular accident (stroke), or head trauma
Dysphasia : impairment of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or impairment of the power of comprehension of spoken or written language. More severe forms of dysphasia are called aphasia.